Research and Development

  • Development of new radiello
  • Development and validation of new sampling and analysis methods
  • Product improvements and development of new components

Development of new radiello

radiello, the radial symmetry diffusive sampler, was conceived and patented by the Padua Environmental Research Center of the Salvatore Maugeri Foundation, now Istituti Clinici Scientifici Maugeri S.p.A. – SB.

radiello is produced by our technicians directly in the laboratories of the Environmental Research Center.radiello is a certified instrument (EN 13528: 2002; EN 14662-4.5: 2005). The radiello samplers have been validated with reference to the UNI EN 838 standard (Atmosphere in the working environment – Diffusive samplers for the determination of gases and vapors – requirements and test methods).

radiello is a closed, cylindrical box, consisting of a diffusive body that contains an adsorbing or a chemiadsorbing cartridge, in turn cylindrical, coaxial to the diffusive body.

radiello is a closed, cylindrical box, consisting of a diffusive body that contains an adsorbing or a chemiadsorbing cartridge, in turn cylindrical, coaxial to the diffusive body.

Under the concentration gradient existing between the air outside the diffusive body and the adsorbing cartridge inside the diffusive body, the gaseous molecules pass through the diffusive body spreading towards the adsorbing cartridge, along a path parallel to the system axis. The adsorbable molecules are retained by the adsorbing cartridge based on electrical or chemical mechanisms. For each sampling compound it must be known what is called “sampling rate” (Q) which represents the flow with which the molecules of a compound pass through the diffusive body to reach the adsorbing cartridge.

Note the sampling rate and the sampling duration, analytically measured the mass of the compound adsorbed by the cartridge, we can calculate the air concentration of the compound.

It is clear, therefore, that the knowledge of the sampling rate is a fundamental element for using diffusion samplers.

For more than 20 years the Environmental Research Center of the ICS Maugeri has been highly specialized and qualified in measuring the sampling flow rates of radiello.

standard atmosphere generation system

The sampling rates are measured in a controlled atmosphere chamber. It allows the dynamic generation of concentrations between 1 µg·m-3 and 1,000 mg·m-3 (dynamics from 1 to 106) of each compound under test alone or in a mixture, at high flow rates. The concentrations of the compounds in the chamber are all obtained starting from primary standards. The chamber allows exposures to temperatures between 4 °C and 40 °C, relative humidity between 5 and 95%, air speed between 0.1 and 10 m·s-1.

All flows are measured with Mass flow controllers and the operating parameters (flows, temperature, humidity …) are recorded and the records are placed in support of the certification.

All the radiello sampling flow rates, reported in the respective pages of the methods (link alla pagina “Methods”), are not simple estimates based on theoretical diffusion coefficients, but experimentally measured in a controlled dynamic atmosphere chamber.

The measurement uncertainties in the experimental determination of the sampling flow rates were calculated by applying the criteria established by the international standards UNI CEI ENV 13005 (Guide to Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement) and UNI CEI 70098-3 (Measurement uncertainty – Part 3: Guide to the expression of measurement uncertainty).

The experimentation at the laboratories of our Center for the research of new substrates and for the calculation of sampling rates for new compounds continues incessantly.

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Development and validation of new sampling and analysis methods

A significant part of the scientific research activities of the Environmental Research Center is aimed at the development and validation of new methods for the measurement and analysis of new airborne compounds. These methods are designed to be characterized by the maximum simplicity of use, in order to allow monitoring as efficient as possible.

The measurement methods must make it possible to quantify the compounds at levels of concentration in the air near or below the existing Occupational Exposure Limits (OELs), as regards industrial hygiene, or those set by national or international regulations or Guidelines, regarding environmental hygiene.

Typically, the purpose of the research is:

  1. verifying the recovery of the compound from the adsorbing substrates normally used in radiello samplers and experimenting with new ones
  2. identifying the substrate that guarantees the best desorption efficiency
  3. validating the method according to the standards EN 838, EN 1076, UNI CEI 70098-3

Product improvements and development of new components

The improvement of production, logistics and organizational procedures and the development of new radiello’s components / accessories that increase its performance and expand its use are among the priority objectives of the Research Center.

Both based on suggestions from radiello users and our experience in the field, many new features have been introduced over the years to make the use of the sampler more practical and functional. Here are some examples:

  • Improvement of the packaging and transport methods of perishable products such as, for example, the aldehyde cartridges code 165. New aluminum bags have been introduced to contain the cartridges allowing a refrigerated transport inside polystyrene containers that guarantees the cartridge integrity up to the final destination
  • The labeling characteristics of the packages have been improved, clearly showing the code and the type of product contained, the expiry date, the lot number and the storage methods
  • The practice of inserting a Quality Certificate within each package was introduced, which guarantees that the level of whites in the batch to which they belong is always lower than the predetermined acceptability values. These values have been set to at least comply with the requirements of the UNI EN 838 and UNI EN 13528 standards. The Quality Certificates are also available online at the “documentation” page.
  • In order to make the purchase of radiello more “customizable” packages of different formats have been designed, no longer only for 20 cartridges but also for 5 or for a single piece, in order to facilitate users who are interested in performing only a small number of samplings
  • The possibility of purchasing kits consisting of the coupled radiello + analysis has been created, all of course at cheaper prices than the separate purchase of radiello and the corresponding analysis.